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148                                     FLORA   INBTCA.
the river Mhai (Mhye), which discharges its waters into the
Gulf of Cambay, draining the whole of the western part of
Malwah. This river is not separated by any very marked
watershed from the basin of the Charabal, the sources of both
rivers being in low hills, scarcely rising above the level of the
The Yindhia hills descend very abruptly on the south into
the valley of the Ncrbada, but slope very gently to the north-
ward. The table-land of Malwah to the north is on the
whole level, without any high ranges of mountains, but its
surface is diversified with small conical or table-topped hills,
and occasional low ridges. The general level of flic crest of
ghats, or passages by which the roads ascend from the valley
of the Nerbada, is about 2000 feet, and it is but rarely that
the ridge rises to a greater elevation. Jamghat, south of
Mhow, is, according to Malcolm, 2328 feet, and Shaixgarh,
Roylc tells us, is 2628. The gentle nature of the slope to-
wards the north may be learned by a comparison of the eleva-
tions of Saugor (2050 feet), Mhow (2019 feet), Imlorc (1998
feet), Ujain (1698 feet), and Mahidpur (1600 feet), as-given
by Malcolm. Nimach (Necmuch) still further north, but to
the west of the Chambal river, and close to the watershed se-
parating it from the Mhai, is only 1476 feet above the level
of the sea, or not more than 800 feet above Gwalior and Agra,
the lowest part of the platform of the Ganges in the direction
in which the Chambal flows. Bhopawcr, in the Mlxai basin,
but close to the crest of the Vindhia range, is 1836 feet.
The table-laud of Malwah is in general highly cultivated,
the soil being rich and productive, the climate mild and moist
during the hot season, and. the surface well watered by nu-
merous rivers and copious streamlets, all of which have their
sources in the crest of the Viudhia hills. The rains, which set
in early in Juuc, with the south-west monsoon from the Bom-
bay sea, and continue till September, are copious, especially in
the southern and western parts of the province, the average
rain fall in the valley of the Ncrbada being rather less than